Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency , counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. In response to the escalating terror campaign in Britain carried out by the militant Irish Fenians in the s, the Home Secretary , Sir William Harcourt , established the first counter-terrorism unit ever.
The Special Irish Branch was initially formed as a section of the Criminal Investigation Department of the London Metropolitan Police in , to combat Irish republican terrorism through infiltration and subversion. Harcourt envisioned a permanent unit dedicated to the prevention of politically motivated violence through the use of modern techniques such as undercover infiltration. This pioneering branch was the first to be trained in counter-terrorism techniques. Its name was changed to Special Branch as it had its remit gradually expanded  to incorporate a general role in counterterrorism, combating foreign subversion and infiltrating organized crime.
Law enforcement agencies , in Britain and elsewhere, established similar units. Counterterrorism forces expanded with the perceived growing threat of terrorism in the late 20th century. Specifically, after the September 11 attacks , Western governments made counter-terrorism efforts a priority, including more foreign cooperation, shifting tactics involving red teams  and preventive measures. Most counter-terrorism strategies involve an increase in standard police and domestic intelligence. The central activities are traditional: New technology has, however, expanded the range of military and law enforcement operations.
Domestic intelligence is often directed at specific groups, defined on the basis of origin or religion, which is a source of political controversy. Mass surveillance of an entire population raises objections on civil liberties grounds. Homegrown terrorists , especially lone wolves are often harder to detect because of their citizenship or legal status and ability to stay under the radar.
To select the effective action when terrorism appears to be more of an isolated event, the appropriate government organizations need to understand the source, motivation, methods of preparation, and tactics of terrorist groups. Good intelligence is at the heart of such preparation, as well as political and social understanding of any grievances that might be solved.
Ideally, one gets information from inside the group, a very difficult challenge for HUMINT because operational terrorist cells are often small, with all members known to one another, perhaps even related. Counterintelligence is a great challenge with the security of cell-based systems, since the ideal, but nearly impossible, goal is to obtain a clandestine source within the cell. Financial tracking can play a role, as can communications intercept , but both of these approaches need to be balanced against legitimate expectations of privacy.
Since the UK's terrorism laws have been regularly reviewed by a security-cleared Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation , whose often influential reports are submitted to Parliament and published in full. One of the primary difficulties of implementing effective counter-terrorist measures is the waning of civil liberties and individual privacy that such measures often entail, both for citizens of, and for those detained by states attempting to combat terror.
Examples of these problems can include prolonged, incommunicado detention without judicial review or long periods of 'preventive detention';  risk of subjecting to torture during the transfer, return and extradition of people between or within countries; and the adoption of security measures that restrain the rights or freedoms of citizens and breach principles of non-discrimination. Many would argue that such violations could exacerbate rather than counter the terrorist threat.
Amnesty International included a section on confronting terrorism in the recommendations in the Madrid Agenda arising from the Madrid Summit on Democracy and Terrorism Madrid March 8—11, Democratic principles and values are essential tools in the fight against terrorism.
Any successful strategy for dealing with terrorism requires terrorists to be isolated. Consequently, the preference must be to treat terrorism as criminal acts to be handled through existing systems of law enforcement and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law. While international efforts to combat terrorism have focused on the need to enhance cooperation between states, proponents of human rights as well as human security have suggested that more effort needs to be given to the effective inclusion of human rights protection as a crucial element in that cooperation. They argue that international human rights obligations do not stop at borders and a failure to respect human rights in one state may undermine its effectiveness in the international effort to cooperate to combat terrorism.
Some countries see preemptive attacks as a legitimate strategy. This includes capturing, killing, or disabling suspected terrorists before they can mount an attack. Another major method of preemptive neutralization is interrogation of known or suspected terrorists to obtain information about specific plots, targets, the identity of other terrorists, whether or not the interrogation subjects himself is guilty of terrorist involvement.
Sometimes more extreme methods are used to increase suggestibility , such as sleep deprivation or drugs. Such methods may lead captives to offer false information in an attempt to stop the treatment, or due to the confusion brought on by it. These methods are not tolerated by European powers.
United Kingdom case that such methods amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment, and that such practices were in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights Article 3 art. The human security paradigm outlines a non-military approach which aims to address the enduring underlying inequalities which fuel terrorist activity. Causal factors need to be delineated and measures implemented which allow equal access to resources and sustainability for all people. Such activities empower citizens providing 'freedom from fear' and 'freedom from want'.
This can take many forms including the provision of clean drinking water, education, vaccination programs, provision of food and shelter and protection from violence, military or otherwise. Successful human security campaigns have been characterized by the participation of a diverse group of actors including governments, NGOs , and citizens.
Foreign internal defense programs provide outside expert assistance to a threatened government. FID can involve both non-military and military aspects of counter-terrorism. A study found that "governance and civil society aid is effective in dampening domestic terrorism, but this effect is only present if the recipient country is not experiencing a civil conflict.
Terrorism has often been used to justify military intervention in countries like Pakistan where terrorists are said to be based. That was the main stated justification for the U. It was also a stated justification for the second Russian invasion of Chechnya. Although military action can disrupt a terrorist group's operations temporarily, it sometimes doesn't end the threat completely. Thus repression by the military in itself particularly if it is not accompanied by other measures usually leads to short term victories, but tend to be unsuccessful in the long run e.
However, new methods see the new Counterinsurgency Field Manual  such as those taken in Iraq have yet to be seen as beneficial or ineffectual. Police, fire, and emergency medical response organizations have obvious roles. Local firefighters and emergency medical personnel often called "first responders" have plans for mitigating the effects of terrorist attacks, although police may deal with threats of such attacks. Whatever the target of terrorists, there are multiple ways of hardening the targets to prevent the terrorists from hitting their mark, or reducing the damage of attacks.
One method is to place Hostile vehicle mitigation to enforce protective standoff distance outside tall or politically sensitive buildings to prevent car and truck bombing. Another way to reduce the impact of attacks is to design buildings for rapid evacuation. Aircraft cockpits are kept locked during flights, and have reinforced doors, which only the pilots in the cabin are capable of opening.
UK railway stations removed their rubbish bins in response to the Provisional IRA threat, as convenient locations for depositing bombs. Scottish stations removed theirs after the 7 July London Bombings as a precautionary measure. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority purchased bomb-resistant barriers after the September 11 terrorist attacks. As Israel is suffering from constant shelling of its cities, towns and settlements by artillery rockets from the Gaza Strip mainly by Hamas , but also by other Palestinian factions and Lebanon mainly by Hezbollah , Israel developed several defensive measures against artillery, rockets and missiles.
These include building a bomb shelter in every building and school , but also deploying active protection systems like the Arrow ABM , Iron Dome and David's Sling batteries which intercept the incoming threat in the air. Iron Dome has successfully intercepted hundreds of Qassam rockets and Grad rockets fired by Palestinians from the Gaza Strip.
A more sophisticated target-hardening approach must consider industrial and other critical industrial infrastructure that could be attacked. Terrorists need not import chemical weapons if they can cause a major industrial accident such as the Bhopal disaster or the Halifax Explosion. Industrial chemicals in manufacturing, shipping, and storage need greater protection, and some efforts are in progress. Industrial shipments of chlorine, widely used in water purification and the chemical industry, travel in 90 or 55 ton tank cars.
To give one more example, the North American electrical grid has already demonstrated, in the Northeast Blackout of , its vulnerability to natural disasters coupled with inadequate, possibly insecure, SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition networks. Part of the vulnerability is due to deregulation leading to much more interconnection in a grid designed for only occasional power-selling between utilities. A small number of terrorists, attacking key power facilities when one or more engineers have infiltrated the power control centers, could wreak havoc.
Equipping likely targets with containers i. The technique was apparently used on a limited scale by British authorities in the s. The idea has been suggested more recently as a deterrent to suicide bombings in Israel. In North America and other continents, for a threatened or completed terrorist attack, the Incident Command System ICS is apt to be invoked to control the various services that may need to be involved in the response. ICS has varied levels of escalation, such as might be needed for multiple incidents in a given area e.
National response, for example, might be needed for a nuclear, biological, radiological, or large chemical attack. Fire departments , perhaps supplemented by public works agencies, utility providers e. Again under an incident command model, local police can isolate the incident area, reducing confusion, and specialized police units can conduct tactical operations against terrorists, often using specialized counter-terrorist tactical units. Bringing in such units will normally involve civil or military authority beyond the local level.
Emergency medical services will triage, treat, and transport the more seriously affected victims to hospitals, which will also need to have mass casualty and triage plans in place. Public health agencies , from local to national level, may be designated to deal with identification, and sometimes mitigation, of possible biological attacks, and sometimes chemical or radiologic contamination. Today, many countries have special units designated to handle terrorist threats. Besides various security agencies , there are elite tactical units , also known as special mission units , whose role is to directly engage terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks.
Such units perform both in preventive actions, hostage rescue and responding to on-going attacks. Countries of all sizes can have highly trained counter-terrorist teams. Tactics, techniques and procedures for manhunting are under constant development. Most of these measures deal with terrorist attacks that affect an area, or threaten to do so. It is far harder to deal with assassination, or even reprisals on individuals, due to the short if any warning time and the quick exfiltration of the assassins.
These units are specially trained in tactics and are very well equipped for CQB with emphasis on stealth and performing the mission with minimal casualties. The units include take-over force assault teams , snipers , EOD experts, dog handlers and intelligence officers. See Counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism organizations for national command, intelligence, and incident mitigation.
The majority of counter-terrorism operations at the tactical level, are conducted by state, federal and national law enforcement agencies or intelligence agencies. In some countries, the military may be called in as a last resort. Obviously, for countries whose military are legally permitted to conduct police operations, this is a non-issue, and such counter-terrorism operations are conducted by their military. See counter-intelligence for command, intelligence and warning, and incident mitigation aspects of counter-terror. Some counterterrorist actions of the 20th and 21st century are listed below.
See list of hostage crises for a more extended list, including hostage-taking that did not end violently. NSA provided critical intelligence support that assisted in the apprehension of terrorist operatives. NSA provided numerous leads to allied forces associated with the continued search for former al-Qa'ida leaders and forces. NGA provided commercial imagery of both airports as well as High Resolution Terrain Information data for portions of each runway. The NIC produced analytic reports on terrorist threats in Africa and the implications for US interests and counterterrorism cooperation in the region.
STIC-sponsored Intelligence Community conferences on advanced explosives produced information for DoD policymakers and weapons developers that had immediate payoff for near-term counterterrorism support. During the past year, TTIC: Provided policymakers with intelligence assessments that informed decisions on raising and lowering the threat level. Continued production of the Threat Matrix and began twice daily production of Situation Reports - both of which are shared with wide audiences.
Took the lead in supporting the policy community during the "holiday threat" period at the end of In addition to providing daily assessments for the President, TTIC produced focused reports that assessed al-Qa'ida's presence and capabilities in the United States and reviewed the group's targeting of critical US infrastructure. Designed and produced the first Strategic Threat and Analysis Report. The goal was to make terrorist-related information as widely available as possible, particularly to the law enforcement community. In January the FBI produced the first comprehensive assessment of the terrorist threat in the Homeland.
In addition to being disseminated to the White House, senior policymakers, and the Intelligence Community, this assessment was disseminated to state and local law enforcement agencies. The FBI disseminated over 1, raw intelligence reports over these links. FBI analysts produced a range of assessments of terrorist groups operating in the United States for the policy community and the Intelligence Community. The FBI produced assessments of current threats and terrorist group modus operandi for the state and local law enforcement on a weekly basis.
In addition, NGA analysts developed a new use of the port graphic that incorporated explosive site surveys for safety reviews.
NGA created a 3D model utilizing commercial imagery and HarborView for maritime safety and intelligence. NGA analysts used this model to obtain intelligence data and visualizations for port force protection. NGA analysts employed this tool successfully for numerous domestic special events in Unified Defense and Determined Promise DHS used these products in preparation for visits to various critical infrastructure sites such as the nuclear power plant facility, Rancho Seco, CA.
In support of the NCSD's mission to identify, analyze, and reduce cyber threats and vulnerabilities, NSA is providing extensive support through its leadership in the development of methodologies that take into account existing best practices and the latest techniques and research. Decision Support Systems , 43 , — The FBI and municipal police departments have been combatting domestic terrorism for even longer, developing intelligence on and infiltrating terrorist organizations on the political right and left as far back as the era of anarchism and more recently during the tumultuous s and s. CIA is sharing potential threat information resulting from this process with other Intelligence Community members. How dirty are we willing to get our hands? What threat does ISIL pose to the homeland? Oxford Research Encyclopedias International Studies.
These imagery and graphics have now become part of the DHS site visit package, covering themes such as military facilities, soft targets, assorted geospatial intelligence products over the areas, and image graphics covering the facility and surroundings. NSA provided system security engineering support, unique cryptographic key generation, and the necessary equipment to allow the Federal Government to securely communicate with all 50 states and six territories.
NSA has been providing cryptologic products, services, and advice to this important national program. As part of the NSA's security and counterintelligence outreach program, terrorist threat briefings were given to 31 Maryland State Police In-Service classes. These briefings provided an unclassified overview of NSA and explained various terrorism methodologies to the troopers.
NSA expects to continue this initiative, with the goal of eventually providing training to every police trooper in the State of Maryland. In support of the NCSD's mission to identify, analyze, and reduce cyber threats and vulnerabilities, NSA is providing extensive support through its leadership in the development of methodologies that take into account existing best practices and the latest techniques and research.
iv State and Local Intelligence in the War on Terrorism. • Out of the Ordinary: Finding Hidden Threats by Analyzing Un- usual Behavior, John S. Hollywood. Examines how state and local law enforcement agencies conducted and supported counterterrorism intelligence activities after 9/
The assessment served as a major source for a DIA vulnerability assessment. The STIC and Weapons and Space Systems Intelligence Committee subsequently were asked to play comparable roles for any unattributed chemical and biological events worldwide. The Community Intelligence Technology Innovation Center's Knowledge, Discovery and Dissemination program, the Department of Homeland Security, and the national labs partnered to create a test bed and prototype system for terrorist threat information. The effort will merge technology being developed by these organizations in the areas of data processing analysis tools and biometrics.
CIA and the Community Intelligence Technology Innovation Center collaborated with the Center for Disease Control to produce the first complete characterization of more than 40 smallpox strains and identified unique diagnostics and genetic forensic signatures. This characterization capability and process was used to analyze the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS genome during the outbreak and has become the standard for characterizing such pathogens as the West Nile virus, monkey pox, and vaccinia. The USCG implemented a unique geospatial-intelligence production workflow to satisfy a dramatic increase in requests for information on domestic port infrastructure.
USCG produced over unclassified products used by the Captains of the Port for situation awareness, consequence management planning, and port security protection.
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